© 2011 N.N. Sedova
2011 – № 2 (2)
Key words: philosophy, bioethics, the right, axiology, deontology, the higher medical education
Abstract: The education in the sphere of bioethics in medical universities is closely connected with the studies of philosophy and law. It can be structured in an optimum way on 3 levels: theoretical bioethics should be studied in the context of philosophy, studies of practical bioethics should correlate with law studies, while applied bioethics should be studied within postdiploma instruction.
The Bioethics has a three-level structure.
- Theoretical bioethics (TB)- set of knowledge about the relation of the person to live, presented to a kind axiological discourse. The object of interest in TB – the relation to live. The method – open rational discussion. Language – ethical categories and concepts. The subject accurately is not defined.
- Practical bioethics (PB)- the institutional issued standard regulation and valuable examination of the relation of the person to live. Instructions are made in the form of codes, oaths, charters, declarations and other similar documents which are not legal. Subjects of PB – ethical committees, commissions, advisers. A way of estimation – correlation of acts and intentions with the specified instructions. Sanctions – informal.
- Applied bioethics (AB)- the description of concrete situations of behaviour of the person in relation to live. The individualized estimation. Private recommendations. Appeals to moral consciousness of the concrete person.
It is possible to optimize bioethical formation in medical high schools according to these levels:
- The theoretical bioethics is to be studied during 1 – 3 courses in the context of philosophy or right after it.
- The practical bioethics is to be studied during the last year, in parallel with a course on the medical law.
- Applied bioethics is to be studied in postgraduate education’ system – in the framework of internships, at courses of improvement of qualification for doctors.
Such way of training will allow generating not only knowledge, but also skills of their application, installation on adequate moral behavior.
Application of this model of training in the higher medical school will allow overcoming the rupture between it axiological and deontological maintenance which occurred during the last years.